Court protocol essay

The court extends its appreciation to its panel of judges for their work in reviewing the essays and selecting the top three submissions: Henry L. Chambers, Jr., Professor of Law, University of Richmond School of Law; John J. Korzen, Director of the Appellate Advocacy Clinic, Wake Forest University School of Law; Hannah Rogers Metcalfe, Metcalfe & Atkinson, LLC, Federal Bar Association Vice President for the Fourth Circuit; Toni M. Poling, English Teacher, Fairmont Senior High School, and 2017 West Virginia Teacher of the Year; Sandra Gioia Treadway, Librarian of Virginia and State Archivist of Virginia; and Jody Zepp, Government Teacher, Long Reach High School, Howard County, and 2015 Maryland Teacher of the Year.

Federal Court

The jurisdiction of the federal courts is defined in Article III, Section 2, of the Constitution, as extending in law and equity to all cases arising under the Constitution and federal legislation; to controversies to which the . shall be a party, including those arising from treaties with other governments; to admiralty and maritime cases; to controversies between states; to controversies between a state, or its citizens, and foreign governments or their subjects; and to controversies between the citizens of one state and citizens of another state. The federal courts were also originally invested with jurisdiction over controversies between citizens of one state and the government of another state; the 11th Amendment (ratified February 7, 1795), however, removed from federal jurisdiction those cases in which the citizens of one state were plaintiffs and the government of another state was the defendant. The amendment did not disturb the jurisdiction of the federal courts in cases in which a state government is a plaintiff and a citizen of another state, the defendant. Federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction in patent and copyright cases; and by congressional enactment in 1898, federal courts were vested with original jurisdiction in bankruptcy cases.

The courts established under the powers granted by Article III, Sections 1 and 2, of the Constitution are known as constitutional courts. Judges of constitutional courts are appointed for life by the president with the approval of the Senate. These courts are the district courts, tribunals of general original jurisdiction; the courts of appeals (before 1948, circuit courts of appeals), exercising appellate jurisdiction over the district courts; and the Supreme Court. A district court functions in each of the more than 90 federal judicial districts and in the District of Columbia. A court of appeals functions in each of the 11 federal judicial circuits and in the District of Columbia; there is also a more specialized court with nationwide jurisdiction known as the court of appeals for the federal circuit. The federal district court and the court of appeals of the District of Columbia perform functions discharged in the states by state courts. All lower federal courts operate under uniform rules of procedure promulgated by the Supreme Court.

The Supreme Court is the highest appellate tribunal in the country and is a court of original jurisdiction according to the Constitution “in all cases affecting Ambassadors, other public ministers and Consuls, and those in which a...

Six years ago I became intensely involved in the company. I started in sales and business development and advanced to project manager and board member. After completing my MBA I will return to my family’s business to execute our expansion plan. I have already started by founding a timber company in Central America and designing a pilot for a smart fueling project in Nigeria and Ghana. My immediate next goal is to focus on growing our telecommunications department. Due to recent investments, this department has potential to serve most of Western Africa with low marginal cost. I intend on leveraging this position by leading our company into other countries, including Nigeria, Liberia and Cameroon.

Every society is faced by a fundamental problem of achieving social control that protects people’s lives and properties as well as establishing desirable levels of order, accord, security and courtesy in the society. Societies, therefore, have developed informal methods of attaining this control where family structures, norms and religious precepts are included. Law is established in contrast as a formal method of social control. Law is then said to be a set of rules that is prescribed and implemented by government to regulate and protect the society. Certain forms of behavior are prohibited and penalties are imposed to those engaging in the barred conduct. The branch of law illegalizing those conducts is referred to as criminal law. In a democratic society, one is not convicted of a crime without committing an offence that is against the law and that provides for a penalty.
Criminal law provides substantive and procedural rules, both governing the criminal justice system’s operations. Substantive rules prohibit certain behaviors and define crime as well as establishing penalties and their parameter. Procedural rules, on the other hand, controls the enforcement of substantive law, determines guilt and the punishment to be imposed to the guilty. This paper explores criminal trial and the procedural steps in a criminal trial.
Criminal Trial
According to John (2010, ), there are basic procedural steps that are common to all prosecutions in a crime although some differ greatly among jurisdictions. Agencies enforcing law, arrests, cross-examine persons in custody and then conducts searches and seizures in every jurisdiction. This is followed by formal notification of the accused, the charges facing them and an opportunity is g...


... middle of paper ...


...010, ). The major include capital punishment, that is, a sentence to death, and corporal, which, inflicts to ones body, pain or injury. Cruel and unusual one provides for a physical beating as well as torture to a prisoner (John, 2010).
Conclusion
Crimes such as assaultive, sexual as well detention formed a stable base used to prosecute people whose behaviors offended basic norms of a society over the centuries. To cope with cultural needs of a society that is dynamic, law must be changed and enforced. There should also be fair administration of justice and processes that are orderly. To achieve this, honesty and integrity of authority occupants is a requirement. To maintain security and usefulness of law, confinement of the offenders must be ensured by the society.



References
John M. S. Criminal Law and Procedure, (2010). Cengage Learning. Belmont, USA.
Read Full Essay Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

Court protocol essay

court protocol essay

Every society is faced by a fundamental problem of achieving social control that protects people’s lives and properties as well as establishing desirable levels of order, accord, security and courtesy in the society. Societies, therefore, have developed informal methods of attaining this control where family structures, norms and religious precepts are included. Law is established in contrast as a formal method of social control. Law is then said to be a set of rules that is prescribed and implemented by government to regulate and protect the society. Certain forms of behavior are prohibited and penalties are imposed to those engaging in the barred conduct. The branch of law illegalizing those conducts is referred to as criminal law. In a democratic society, one is not convicted of a crime without committing an offence that is against the law and that provides for a penalty.
Criminal law provides substantive and procedural rules, both governing the criminal justice system’s operations. Substantive rules prohibit certain behaviors and define crime as well as establishing penalties and their parameter. Procedural rules, on the other hand, controls the enforcement of substantive law, determines guilt and the punishment to be imposed to the guilty. This paper explores criminal trial and the procedural steps in a criminal trial.
Criminal Trial
According to John (2010, ), there are basic procedural steps that are common to all prosecutions in a crime although some differ greatly among jurisdictions. Agencies enforcing law, arrests, cross-examine persons in custody and then conducts searches and seizures in every jurisdiction. This is followed by formal notification of the accused, the charges facing them and an opportunity is g...


... middle of paper ...


...010, ). The major include capital punishment, that is, a sentence to death, and corporal, which, inflicts to ones body, pain or injury. Cruel and unusual one provides for a physical beating as well as torture to a prisoner (John, 2010).
Conclusion
Crimes such as assaultive, sexual as well detention formed a stable base used to prosecute people whose behaviors offended basic norms of a society over the centuries. To cope with cultural needs of a society that is dynamic, law must be changed and enforced. There should also be fair administration of justice and processes that are orderly. To achieve this, honesty and integrity of authority occupants is a requirement. To maintain security and usefulness of law, confinement of the offenders must be ensured by the society.



References
John M. S. Criminal Law and Procedure, (2010). Cengage Learning. Belmont, USA.
Read Full Essay Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper

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