Literature survey research paper

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Despite good economic conditions during the decade of the 1990s and favorable public attitudes toward hiring PWDs, why has employment of PWDs shown a mostly negative trend? Several alternative explanations need to be examined in order to better understand this phenomenon. First, people with disabilities may lack the necessary knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) needed for the available jobs. Second, PWDs may be less productive than people without disabilities and entail higher labor costs, including insurance costs. Third, employer stereotypes and biases may result in less willingness to hire PWDs. Fourth, employers may fear lawsuits and related legal costs associated with employing PWDs. Fifth, employers may have concerns that coworkers will react negatively to working with PWDs. Sixth, employers may have concerns that customers will react negatively to employees with disabilities, thereby reducing sales. Finally, employers may be unaware of economic incentives that would make hiring PWDs more attractive and cost-effective, or while employers are aware of the incentives, they may not be significant enough to alter hiring practices.

Paul H. Fry is the William Lampson Professor of English at Yale and specializes in British Romanticism, literary theory, and literature and the visual arts. He was educated at the University of California, Berkeley and Harvard and has been teaching at Yale since 1971. His publications include The Poet's Calling in the English Ode , for which he was awarded the Melville Cane Award; The Reach of Criticism: Method and Perception in Literary Theory ; William Empson: Prophet Against Sacrifice ; A Defense of Poetry: Essays on the Occasion of Writing ; and Wordsworth and the Poetry of What We Are .

The first category in Bloom's taxonomy is remembering . For a person doing a literature review this would include tasks such as recognition, retrieval and recollection of the relevant literature. During this stage relevant books, articles, monographs , dissertations , etc. are identified and read. Bloom’s second category understanding occurs as the scholar comprehends the material they have collected and read. This step is critical because no one can write clearly about something they do not understand. Understanding may be challenging because the literature could introduce the scholar to new terminology, conceptual framework and methodology . Comprehension (particularly for new scholars) is often improved by taking careful notes. In Bloom’s third category applying the scholar is able to make connections between the literature and his or her larger research project. This is particularly true if the literature review is to be a chapter in a future empirical study. The literature review begins to inform the research question, and methodological approaches. When scholars analyze (fourth category in Bloom's taxonomy) they are able to separate material into parts and figure out how the parts fit together. Analysis of the literature allows the scholar to develop frameworks for analysis and the ability to see the big picture and know how details from the literature fit within the big picture. Analysis facilitates the development of an outline (list) . The books, articles and monographs read will be of different quality and value. When scholars use Bloom’s fifth category evaluating they are able to see the strengths and weaknesses of the theories, arguments, methodology and findings of the literature they have collected and read. [7] When scholars engage in creating the final category in Bloom's taxonomy, they bring creativity to the process of doing a literature review. In other words, they draw new and original insights from the literature. They may be able to find a fresh and original research question, identify a heretofore, unknown gap in the literature or make surprising connections. By understanding how ways of thinking connect to tasks of a literature review, a scholar is able to be self-reflective and bring metacognition to the process of reviewing the literature. [5]

Literature survey research paper

literature survey research paper

The first category in Bloom's taxonomy is remembering . For a person doing a literature review this would include tasks such as recognition, retrieval and recollection of the relevant literature. During this stage relevant books, articles, monographs , dissertations , etc. are identified and read. Bloom’s second category understanding occurs as the scholar comprehends the material they have collected and read. This step is critical because no one can write clearly about something they do not understand. Understanding may be challenging because the literature could introduce the scholar to new terminology, conceptual framework and methodology . Comprehension (particularly for new scholars) is often improved by taking careful notes. In Bloom’s third category applying the scholar is able to make connections between the literature and his or her larger research project. This is particularly true if the literature review is to be a chapter in a future empirical study. The literature review begins to inform the research question, and methodological approaches. When scholars analyze (fourth category in Bloom's taxonomy) they are able to separate material into parts and figure out how the parts fit together. Analysis of the literature allows the scholar to develop frameworks for analysis and the ability to see the big picture and know how details from the literature fit within the big picture. Analysis facilitates the development of an outline (list) . The books, articles and monographs read will be of different quality and value. When scholars use Bloom’s fifth category evaluating they are able to see the strengths and weaknesses of the theories, arguments, methodology and findings of the literature they have collected and read. [7] When scholars engage in creating the final category in Bloom's taxonomy, they bring creativity to the process of doing a literature review. In other words, they draw new and original insights from the literature. They may be able to find a fresh and original research question, identify a heretofore, unknown gap in the literature or make surprising connections. By understanding how ways of thinking connect to tasks of a literature review, a scholar is able to be self-reflective and bring metacognition to the process of reviewing the literature. [5]

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